Açık Alan Etkinliklerinin Okul Öncesi Dönemdeki Çocukların Bilimsel Süreç Beceri
Öz Çalışmanın amacı açık alan etkinliklerinin okul öncesi dönemdeki çocukların bilimsel süreç becerilerine olan etkisini araştırmaktır. Ön test-son test kontrol gruplu modelin kullanıldığı araştırmada çalışma grubunu 6 yaş grubu toplam 14 çocuk oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmada veri toplama aracı olarak Ayvacı (2010) tarafından geliştirilen 'Bilimsel Süreç Becerileri Testi' kullanılmıştır. 'Bilimsel Süreç Becerileri Testi'nden elde edilen sonuçlar arasında açık alan etkinliklerinin çocukların gözlem
... n çocukların gözlem yapma, sınıflama ve ölçme becerilerini geliştirmede sınıf içi etkinliklerden daha etkili olduğu görülürken, açık alan etkinliklerinin çocukların tahmin etme ve sonuç çıkarma becerilerini geliştirmede sınıf içi etkinliklerden daha etkili olmadığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Abstract This study aims to research the effect of outdoor activities on scientific process skills of preschool children. In this study which is used pretest-posttestcontrol group model, the study group consists of 14 children, who are 6 years old. 'Scientific Process Skills Test' which was designed by Ayvacı (2010) was used as data collection tool. Among results obtained from the 'Scientific Process Skills Test', outdoor activities were found more effective in developing observation, classification and measuring skills of children compared to class activities. However outdoor activities weren't found more effective in developing forecasting and inferring skills of children compared to class activities. Extended Summary The aim of this study is to examine the impact of outdoor activities on the development of scientific process skills of preschool children. In this study is used pretest-posttest control group model. The research was carried out in the kindergarten that served children from middle socio-economic class in the province of Bornova, Izmir. The participants consists of 14 children, who are 6 years old, enrolled in Evka-4 Yeşiltepe Nursery School affiliated to Izmir Metropolitan Municipality. The experimental and control groups were selected as half of the 14 children were in the experimental group and the other half were in the control group. During the selection of the study group, factors such as age, sex distribution, demographic characteristics, pre-test results obtained from the "Scientific Process Skills Test" of the groups were considered in order to have balance in both groups. "Scientific Process Skills Test" which was designed by Ayvacı (2010) was used as data collection tool in this study. To be in line with the purpose of the study, the achievements and indicators of the five sub-skills (observing, measuring, classifying, predicting and inferring) of the basic process skills in the 2013 Pre-School Education Program were identified and outdoor education module comprising the outdoor activities related to scientific process skills was prepared on the basis of these achievements and indicators. During the experimental process, consisting of 42 activities planned under the module, were applied by the researcher in the garden of the kindergarten for 3 days a week for the 8 weeks and three hours on the days when the researcher available; while in the control group activities related to scientific process skills were applied by the class teacher in the classroom. The activity selections applied to the control group were flexible, provided that they stick to the benefit-indicator schedule. Among results obtained from the 'Scientific Process Skills Test', outdoor activities were found effective to enhance students' skills of observation and classification while in-class activities were not found supportive in terms of these skills. Considering findings relating to measurement skill, in-class activities were seen effective for developing this skill. However, outdoor activities were found more effective in developing measurement skill of students compared to in-class activities. As to findings of forecasting skills, both of the programs are effective developer of these skills. Even students in experimental group scored higher than students in control group, education supported by outdoor activities was not found more effective than in-class activities in developing forecasting skill. Further, both of the programs were found ineffective in developing inferring skill of children. This consequence was interpreted as inferring skill is difficult to be gained in eight weeks of experimental process. Besides, students may have guessed the correct answer luckily since there is only one question which measures this skill on the scale. Reviewing the researches carried out, it supports the findings in this study. Ardaç& Mugaloğlu (2002) , Ayvacı (2010), Büyüktaşkapu, Çeliköz& Akman (2012) refers that scientific process skills can be developed through appropriate training programs, Balım, Deniş Çeliker, Türkoğuz& Kaçar (2013) proves that out-of-class education practices were effective in improving students' scientific process skills. In order to determine which group progressed more, the differences on scores of the pre-test and the post-test of both groups were calculated, and it was observed that the score difference of the experiment and control group changed significantly and this was favorable to the experiment group. In this perspective, it was determined that outdoor activities were more effective than class activities in improving the achievement of the scientific process skills of the children in the experimental group. Outdoor education is an experiential learning process aiming at learning through concrete experiences and enabling the use of all senses (Priest, 1986; Szczepanski, Malmer, Nelson& Dahlgren, 2006) . Practical trainings in outdoors give children the opportunity to structure their knowledge and become active in their own learning process (Kete, 2013 , Studer, 1998 . In this context, it is possible to explain the reason why better results are obtained from the experimental group in this research due to the fact that learning in outdoor education is based on concrete experiences and that the students are more active in this field. The study carried out supports this situation as well. Mabie& Baker (1996) refers in their study that the effect of experiential activities on the development of scientific process skills is positive; according to Jeenthong vd. (2014) claims that events allowing students the first-hand experience are better in terms of the development of the their scientific process skills. Nowadays, it is seen that especially the children living in big cities and growing out of the nature have been idle for a long time and spend their time with tools such as television, computer, tablet and mobile phones. It is an indisputable fact that these children need even more outdoor activities. To this end, instructors need to offer educational environments to support all areas of development of children and move away from the understanding that education can only be carried out within the classroom and finally need to include outdoor activities as well.