Inhibition of HHIP Promoter Methylation Suppresses Human Gastric Cancer Cell Proliferation and Migration
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Background/Aims: Human hedgehog-interacting protein (HHIP) is a negative regulator of the hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway. It is deregulated in gastric cancer. The underlying molecular mechanism of HHIP-induced inhibition of HH signaling remains to be determined. Methods: A lentiviral HHIP expression vector ("LV-HHIP") was established to exogenously over-express HHIP in gastric cancer cells. HHIP protein and mRNA were tested by Western blotting assay and quantitative real-time PCR assay,
... e PCR assay, respectively. Cell survival was tested by the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Cell proliferation was examined by the BrdU ELISA assay and [H 3 ] Thymidine DNA incorporation assay. Cell invasion and migration were tested by the phagokinetic track assay and the "Transwell" assay. The bisulfite-sequencing PCR was applied to test HHIP promoter methylation. Results: In the established (AGS cell line) and primary human gastric cancer cells, LV-HHIP transfection increased HHIP expression and inhibited cancer cell survival and proliferation as well as cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, LV-HHIP significantly attenuated promoter methylation of the endogenous HHIP gene in AGS cells, causing it upregulation . Inhibition of methylation by 5-aza-dc similarly induced HHIP expression in gastric cancer cells, which inhibited cancer cell proliferation and migration. Conclusions: Our results suggest that inhibition of HHIP promoter methylation can efficiently inhibit human gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration.