Cholera--once and nowadays
Cholera is an acute intestinal infection which raged in India in the nineteenth century and it broke out in six great pandemics out in Europe. Cholera is caused by bacteria Vibrio cholerae, which produce an enterotoxin causing massive diarrhoea. There are two biotypes--classic and El Tor. The source of Vibrio cholerae is a man. Cholera is a typical faecally-oral infection. Ingested by contaminated water and food, Vibrio cholerae comes to the intestinal wall. The tightness is intermediated with
... intermediated with toxin-coregulated pilus. There it produces enterotoxin and activates adenilate cyclase which accumulate intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The result is isotonic watery diarrhoea. Cholera can occur as asymptomatic infection, then enteritis and deathly classic cholera. Patients suffer from explosive, unremitting, watery diarrhoea (known as "rice water"). DIAGNOSIS AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: The diagnosis is based on clinical features, epidemiological data and laboratory diagnostic methods. The most important is to isolate Vibrion cholerae from the stool. The most important treatment for cholera is fluid containing minerals. The best antibiotics available are tetracycline. The best preventive measures are water supply, sanitation, food safety and community awareness. The importance of vaccines comes second. CHOLERA NOWADAYS: Cholera has been known since ancient times, but it is present even nowadays. It has been developed as a biological weapon. Cholera is a dreadful intestinal disease with severe clinical features. One thing is known for certain: hygienic and sanitary measures are the main prevention.