Assessment of Renal Osteodystrophy via Computational Analysis of Label-free Raman Detection of Multiple Biomarkers

Marian Manciu, Mario Cardenas, Kevin E. Bennet, Avudaiappan Maran, Michael J. Yaszemski, Theresa A. Maldonado, Diana Magiricu, Felicia S. Manciu
2020 Diagnostics  
Accurate clinical evaluation of renal osteodystrophy (ROD) is currently accomplished using invasive in vivo transiliac bone biopsy, followed by in vitro histomorphometry. In this study, we demonstrate that an alternative method for ROD assessment is through a fast, label-free Raman recording of multiple biomarkers combined with computational analysis for predicting the minimally required number of spectra for sample classification at defined accuracies. Four clinically relevant biomarkers: the
more » ... nt biomarkers: the mineral-to-matrix ratio, the carbonate-to-matrix ratio, phenylalanine, and calcium contents were experimentally determined and simultaneously considered as input to a linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Additionally, sample evaluation was performed with a linear support vector machine (LSVM) algorithm, with a 300 variable input. The computed probabilities based on a single spectrum were only marginally different (~80% from LDA and ~87% from LSVM), both providing an unacceptable classification power for a correct sample assignment. However, the Type I and Type II assignment errors confirm that a relatively small number of independent spectra (7 spectra for Type I and 5 spectra for Type II) is necessary for a p < 0.05 error probability. This low number of spectra supports the practicality of future in vivo Raman translation for a fast and accurate ROD detection in clinical settings.
doi:10.3390/diagnostics10020079 pmid:32023980 fatcat:vsmczqnlnffqjk5a4rrkmqmtwi