Effect of camphor on biochemical factors and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, inflammatory and apoptotic factors against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats
Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
Camphor is a natural antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and tissue repair properties. Nephrotoxicity is the most important side effect of gentamicin (GEM) administration. Therefore, investigating the effect of natural antioxidants can resolve this complication. Objectives: We aimed to assay the effect of camphor on biochemical factors and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes (catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPX]) and inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α], nuclear
... ctor kappa-B [NF-κB], interleukine-6 [IL-6]), and apoptotic indices (BCL2-associated X protein [Bax], B-cell lymphoma 2 [Bcl-2], caspase-3)], against GEM-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult male Wistar rats were allocated to five groups. Positive control and treatment groups were given GEM to induce nephrotoxicity. Animal treatment groups were treated with camphor in olive oil for 12 days. Renal biopsies, serum, extraction of renal tissue and urine of rats were taken after the twelfth day. Biopsies were examined for structural changes using a light microscope, moreover, apoptosis, desired biochemical and inflammatory factors, were investigated by suitable methods. Results: Camphor had no effect on biochemical factors, including malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), urea, creatinine and urine protein. However, it reduced the gene expression of TNF-α, NF-κB, IL-6, Bax, and caspase-3 and increased the gene expression of GPX and CAT and Bcl-2. Moreover, camphor improved kidney histopathological changes in the camphor groups in comparison with the GEM group. Conclusion: Camphor can be useful in the attenuation of GEM-induced nephrotoxicity based on expression levels of examined enzymes and factors and improving kidney histopathological changes.