Kesiapan Petani Menggunakan Pupuk Organik pada Padi Sawah

Sumarno Dan, Unang Kartasasmita
Farmers' Preparedness for Using Organic Fertilizers on Lowland Rice. Organic fertilizers are presently being recommended for use on wetland rice, as a supplement to inorganic fertilizers. A survey on the availability of materials and preparedness of farmers to utilize organic fertilizers was carried out in 2010 in 10 regencies within three provinces in Java, namely four regencies in West Java, three in Central Java, and four in East Java. The survey was carried out using a structured questioner
more » ... ructured questioner involving 63 farmer-groups as respondents. Correlation analyses were done among 15 variables, and t-test was applied for paireddata obtained from the dry and wet seasons. Majority of the farmers were empirically familiar on the advantage of using organic fertilizer. However, their knowledges on its benefit were limited to the immediate results, such as on increase of grain yield, better grain quality, and more vigorous crop growth. The number of farmers familiar with the composting technique was in lower proportion than those of the unfamiliar ones. Not all farmers familiar with the composting technique however, were actually practicing their knowledge, only about 25% in West Java, 15% in Central Java, and 35% in East Java. The amount of organic fertilizer applied by farmers was generally far less than that of the recommended, only 0.41 t/ha in West Java, 0.39 t/ha in Central Java, and 1.2 t/ha in East Java. Rice straw from the wet season harvest was either burned (30% in West Java, 38% in Central Java, and 15% in East Java), used for feed (10% in West Java, 22% in Central Java, and 46% in East Java), or returned to the soil (60% in West Java, 40% in Central Java, and 39% in East Java). Those figures were somewhat similar with those on the dry season. The use of organic fertilizer was hampered partly by the lack of knowledge on long-term benefit, and due to the unavailability of manure. The number of livestock owned by farmer, the farmer's practice of making compost, and the availability of manure in each household, each was significantly correlated to the amount of organic matter applied by farmers. Presently, farmers seem to be not yet ready to use organic fertilizer as a supplement for inorganic fertilizer. Integration of rice crop-livestock farming is suggested to be campaigned and facilitated by the Government, in order that the farmers are able to apply the organic fertilizer. This requires that farmers to be assisted for possessing livestock, through a credit-scheme program.