Pengaruh Macam Eksplan dan Konsentrasi 2,4 D terhadap Induksi Kalus Kluwek (Pangium edule Reinw.) secara In Vitro

Hendy Dwi Prabakti
2017 Gontor AGROTECH Science Journal  
Abstrak: Kluwek adalah tanaman asli Indonesia memiliki fungsi ekologi dalam perbaikan lingkungan dan potensial untuk dibudidayakan. Tanaman ini memiliki nilai konservasi dan ekonomi atau disebut jenis tanaman Multi Purpose Tree Species (MPTS) atau tanaman multi guna. Tanaman MPTS adalah tanaman serbaguna yang dapat diambil buah, bunga, kulit, dan daunnya. Kebanyakan pemakaian Pangium edule didasarkan pada adanya asam sianida. Perbanyakan bibit lewat biji sangat terbatas karena keberhasilan
more » ... a keberhasilan perkecambahan hanya 10 %. Karena itu perlu pengadaan bibit kluwek siap tanam yang mencukupi diperoleh melalui perbanyakan vegetatif kultur jaringan. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui respon eksplan dan pengaruh konsentrasi pemberian 2,4 D Induksi Kalus Pangium edule Reinw. melalui kultur in vitro, serta interaksi macam eksplan dengan 2,4 D. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan Jurusan Agronomi Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Jember. Percobaan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) yang tersusun secara faktorial dengan dua faktor perlakuan. Faktor pertama yaitu Macam eksplan terdiri dari 2 taraf: E1 = Daun; dan E2 = Endosperm. Faktor kedua yaitu taraf konsentrasi 2,4 D yang diberikan: D0 = 0,0 ppm; D1 = 0,2; D2 = 0,4 ppm; D3 = 0,6 ppm; D4 = 0,8 ppm; D5 = 1 ppm. Data dianalisis dengan anova dan apabila terdapat perbedaan nyata diantara perlakuan maka dilanjutkan dengan menggunakan uji Beda Nyata Terkecil (BNT) dengan taraf kepercayaan 95 %. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, terdapat interaksi yang sangat nyata antara macam * Korespondensi eksplan dan 2,4 D. Hasil terbaik, berturut-turut parameter kedinian kalus, pembentukan kalus, dan penambahan biomassa, ditunjukkan dengan penambahan 2,4 D 0,8 ppm, 1 ppm, dan 0,4 ppm pada 14 hari, 86,67% dan 66 mg. Parameter warna kalus pada 2,4 D 1 ppm dengan skor 4,2 skor dan tekstur kalus pada 0,8 ppm 2,4-D dengan skor 4. Abstract: Football Fruit is a native Indonesia tree with typical ecological function in improving the environment and it is a potencial plant for cultivating. This plant has a conservation and economic value or Multi Purpose Tree Species (MPTS) or multi-use plant. MPTS plant is a versatile crop, the fruits, flowers, bark, and leaves of which can be taken. Most of the uses of Pangium edule are based on the presence of cyanide. The plant propagation through seed have low germination around 10% of germination. Therefore, it is deemed important to provide sufficient ready-to-plant seedlings of football fruit, which can be obtained from the vegetative explant for callus induction. The aim of the research is studying the response of kind of explants and the concentration effect of 2,4-D at Pangium edule Reinw for callus induction. The research was conducted at the Laboratory of Tissue Culture of the Department of Agronomy, the Faculty of Agriculture, at Jember University. The experiments applied complete randomized design (CRD), which was factorially arranged with two factors. The first factor was kind of explants, which consisted of 2 levels: E1 = Leaf; and E2 = endosperm. The second factor was concentration levels of 2.4 D such as: D0 = 0.0 ppm; D1 = 0.2; D2 = 0.4 ppm; D3 = 0.6 ppm; D4 = 0.8 ppm; D5 = 1 ppm. The obtained data were analyzed using ANOVA and if there were significant differences between the treatments, then data analysis would be continued by using Test of the Least Significant Difference with 95% confidence level. The results showed that there was a very significant interaction between kind of explant and 2.4-D concentration. Based on the observation parameters, the best explant, as indicated by beginning of callus induction, callus formation, biomass addition, callus color, and callus texture, was the one taken from leaf. The best result, at theparameters beginning callus induction, callus formation, and biomass addition, was shown in the addition of 2.4-D with a concentration of 0.8 ppm, 1 ppm and 0,4 ppm were 14 days, 86,67% and 66 mg, respectively. The parameters of callus color at 2,4-D 1 ppm with 4,2 score and the callus texture at 0.8 ppm of 2.4-D with 4 score.
doi:10.21111/agrotech.v3i2.930 fatcat:oniuiwk3fjhy3fhilqnmoqx4gi