### Graph Isomorphism Restricted by Lists [article]

Pavel Klavik, Dušan Knop, Peter Zeman
2016 arXiv   pre-print
The complexity of graph isomorphism (GraphIso) is a famous unresolved problem in theoretical computer science. For graphs G and H, it asks whether they are the same up to a relabeling of vertices. In 1981, Lubiw proved that list restricted graph isomorphism (ListIso) is NP-complete: for each u ∈ V(G), we are given a list L(u) ⊆ V(H) of possible images of u. After 35 years, we revive the study of this problem and consider which results for GraphIso translate to ListIso. We prove the following:
more » ... When GraphIso is GI-complete for a class of graphs, it translates into NP-completeness of ListIso. 2) Combinatorial algorithms for GraphIso translate into algorithms for ListIso: for trees, planar graphs, interval graphs, circle graphs, permutation graphs, bounded genus graphs, and bounded treewidth graphs. 3) Algorithms based on group theory do not translate: ListIso remains NP-complete for cubic colored graphs with sizes of color classes bounded by 8. Also, ListIso allows to classify results for the graph isomorphism problem. Some algorithms are robust and translate to ListIso. A fundamental problem is to construct a combinatorial polynomial-time algorithm for cubic graph isomorphism, avoiding group theory. By the 3rd result, ListIso is NP-hard for them, so no robust algorithm for cubic graph isomorphism exists, unless P = NP.