Maternal coffee intake and the risk of bleeding in early pregnancy: a cross-sectional analysis [post]

2019 unpublished
Caffeine can easily cross the placenta, and maternal caffeine intake, thus, has an effect on fetal growth. However, it is still unclear whether coffee consumption is an independent risk factor for bleeding in early pregnancy. The objective of this study was to examine the association between pre-pregnancy coffee consumption patterns and the risk of bleeding in early pregnancy. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted among 3,510 pregnant women from the Korean Pregnancy Outcome Study
more » ... cy Outcome Study who underwent baseline examination between 2013 and 2017 and for whom the results of the pregnancy were available. Coffee consumption patterns before pregnancy were examined using a questionnaire. The participants were classified according to the frequency of coffee consumption into seldom (<1 cup/week), light (<1 cup/day), moderate (1 cup/day), and heavy coffee drinker (≥2 cups/day) groups. Bleeding in early pregnancy was defined as the occurrence of vaginal bleeding in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to examine the association between pre-pregnancy coffee consumption and the risk of bleeding in early pregnancy, after adjusting for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption behavior, previous and current physical activity levels, stress levels, history of depression, presence of antenatal depressive symptoms during the first trimester, type of emesis, parity, and the number of livebirths, stillbirths, miscarriages, and abortions. Odds ratios among light,
doi:10.21203/rs.2.11601/v2 fatcat:ko65usm5k5c5la3uiwo3aleaaa