Job Insecurity and Its Consequences: Investigating Moderators, Mediators and Gender
This thesis has aimed at increasing our understanding of the relations between job insecurity and its consequences by addressing several specific research aims. The first research aim focused on increasing the range of job insecurity consequences by studying the relation between job insecurity and work-family conflict over time in order to investigate the directionality of their association, which was addressed in Study 3. It was found that job insecurity affected work-family conflict one year
... conflict one year later, but only among men. The second research aim addressed mechanisms involved in the job insecurity-outcome relations. Factors that might make employees more vulnerable to, or buffer against the negative effects of job insecurity were studied. Coping with job insecurity was investigated as potential moderating factors in Study 1. The results showed that problem-focused coping did not function as a buffer, nor did devaluation coping and avoidance coping, the two types of emotion-focused coping studied. Avoidance coping was actually a vulnerability factor for men, and related to more negative reactions to job insecurity in terms of job satisfaction and mental health complaints. Two forms of job dependence were also investigated in Study 2 as potential moderating factors of the relations between job insecurity and its outcomes. It was found that the relative contribution to the household income functioned as a vulnerability factor for men. Higher levels of work centrality combined with either quantitative or qualitative job insecurity were related to higher levels of job satisfaction among women. As a final mechanism, workload was investigated as a mediating variable of the relation between job insecurity and its outcomes in Study 3. The results showed that workload linked job insecurity to work-family conflict one year later, but only for men. The third research aim of this thesis addressed gender, and differences between men and women were found in all three studies, where men overall seemed to suffer more from job insecurity. All in all, these results confirm previous results regarding the negative impact of job insecurity, but also provide information regarding important areas for future research to study, such as the further investigation of mechanisms as well as the role of gender.