Bortezomib administration is a risk factor associated with the development of tumor lysis syndrome in male patients with multiple myeloma: A retrospective study
Background Many novel medicines such as proteasome inhibitors have been developed during the last decade to treat multiple myeloma. Although multiple myeloma is defined as a low-risk disease for developing tumor lysis syndrome (TLS), treatment with these novel therapies might increase TLS risk. In fact, there have been some prior reports of bortezomib-induced TLS in patients with multiple myeloma. However, almost all of them have been case reports or case series. Thus, we investigated the risk
... estigated the risk factors for TLS in multiple myeloma patients. Methods We retrospectively investigated incidences of laboratory and clinical TLS (LTLS and CTLS, respectively) in patients who received primary therapy for treatment-naive, symptomatic multiple myeloma between May 2007 and January 2018. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to evaluate the associations between LTLS and several parameters previously reported to be associated with increased risk. Results This study included 210 patients, seventeen (8.1%) and seven (3.3%) patients with LTLS and CTLS, respectively. The characteristics of the administered anticancer or prophylactic antihyperuricemic agents were similar between the patients with and without LTLS. Multivariate analyses revealed that LTLS was most strongly associated with bortezomib-containing therapy (odds ratio = 3.40, P = 0.069), followed by male sex (odds ratio = 2.29, P = 0.153). In a subgroup analysis focused on men, treatment with bortezomib-containing therapy was significantly associated with increased risk of LTLS (odds ratio = 8.51, P = 0.046). Conclusion In the present study, we investigated the risk factors for developing TLS in 210 multiple myeloma patients, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the largest number of patients reported to date. Furthermore, this study is the first to evaluate TLS risk factors in MM by adjusting for the effects of potential confounding factors in patients' backgrounds. Consequently, we found that bortezomib-containing therapy increases the risk of TLS in male multiple myeloma patients. TLS risk should be evaluated further in low-risk diseases such as multiple myeloma, as an increasing number of novel therapies can achieve high antitumor responses.