State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-ion Batteries Using LSTM and NARX Neural Networks
Highly accurate state of charge (SOC) estimation of lithium-ion batteries is one of the key technologies of battery management systems in electric vehicles. The performance of SOC estimation directly influences the driving range and safety of these vehicles. Due to external disturbances, temperature variation and electromagnetic interference, accurate SOC estimation becomes difficult. To accurately estimate the SOC of lithium-ion batteries, this article presents a novel machine-learning method
... o address the risk of gradient explosion and gradient decent using the dynamic nonlinear auto-regressive models with exogenous input neural network (NARX) with long short-term memories (LSTM).The proposed hybrid NARX model embeds LSTM memory, which provides jump-ahead connections in the time-unfolded model. These jumpahead connections provide a shorter path for the propagation of gradient information, therefore reducing long-term dependence on the recurrent neural network. Experimental results show that the estimation performance root mean square error (RMSE) of the proposed model is less than 1%, and this model has better multitime prediction performance. Finally, the hybrid NARX and LSTM model is compared with the standard back propagation neural network based on particle swarm optimization (BPNN-PSO), the leastsquares support vector machine (LS-SVM) and LSTM existing models under urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS) and dynamic stress test (DST) conditions. The proposed hybrid NARX-LSTM model yield relative to other methods and can estimate the battery SOC with high accuracy. The RMSE of proposed model is improved by approximately 60% compared with the standard LSTM INDEX TERMS Electric vehicles, state of charge, lithium-ion batteries, NARX, LSTM.