Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Under Hypoxia: Changes in Extracellular Vesicles Secretion and Improvement of Renal Recovery after Ischemic Injury
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Background/Aims: The therapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in kidney injury has been largely reported. However, new approaches are necessary to optimize the efficacy in the treatment of renal diseases. MSCs physiologically are under a low O 2 partial pressure (pO 2 ), and culturing adipose-derived MSCs (ADMSCs) in hypoxia alters their secretory paracrine properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether hypoxia
... oxia preconditioning of ADMSCs alters the properties of secreted EVs to improve renal recovery after ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Methods: The supernatants of ADMSCs cultivated under 21% pO 2 (control) or 1% pO 2 (hypoxia) were ultracentrifuged for EVs isolation that were posteriorly characterized by flow cytometry and electron microscopy. The uptake and effects of these EVs were analyzed by using in vitro and in vivo models. HK-2 renal tubule cell line was submitted do ATP depletion injury model. Proteomic analyses of these cells treated with EVs after injury were performed by nano-UPLC tandem nano-ESI-HDMSE method. For in vivo analyses, male Wistar rats were submitted to 45 min bilateral ischemia, followed by renal intracapsular administration of ADMSC-EVs within a 72 h reperfusion period. Histological, immunohistochemical and qRT-PCR analysis of these kidneys were performed to evaluate cell death, inflammation and oxidative stress. Kidney function was evaluated by measuring the blood levels of creatinine and urea. Results: The results demonstrate that hypoxia increases the ADMSCs capacity to secrete EVs that trigger different energy supply, antiapoptotic, immunomodulatory, angiogenic and anti-oxidative stress responses in renal tissue compared with EVs secreted in normoxia. Proteomic analyses of renal tubule cells treated with EVs from ADMSCs in normoxia and hypoxia give a specific signature of modulated proteins for each type of EVs, indicating regulation of distinct biological processes. Conclusion: In summary, hypoxia potentially offers an interesting strategy to enhance the properties of EVs in the treatment of acute kidney disease.