Deep Reinforcement Learning by Balancing Offline Monte Carlo and Online Temporal Difference Use Based on Environment Experiences

Chayoung Kim
2020 Symmetry  
Owing to the complexity involved in training an agent in a real-time environment, e.g., using the Internet of Things (IoT), reinforcement learning (RL) using a deep neural network, i.e., deep reinforcement learning (DRL) has been widely adopted on an online basis without prior knowledge and complicated reward functions. DRL can handle a symmetrical balance between bias and variance—this indicates that the RL agents are competently trained in real-world applications. The approach of the proposed
more » ... model considers the combinations of basic RL algorithms with online and offline use based on the empirical balances of bias–variance. Therefore, we exploited the balance between the offline Monte Carlo (MC) technique and online temporal difference (TD) with on-policy (state-action–reward-state-action, Sarsa) and an off-policy (Q-learning) in terms of a DRL. The proposed balance of MC (offline) and TD (online) use, which is simple and applicable without a well-designed reward, is suitable for real-time online learning. We demonstrated that, for a simple control task, the balance between online and offline use without an on- and off-policy shows satisfactory results. However, in complex tasks, the results clearly indicate the effectiveness of the combined method in improving the convergence speed and performance in a deep Q-network.
doi:10.3390/sym12101685 fatcat:kzwiywbhfzgo3lbuo4qjvcayfu