Perception and Practice of Self-medication With Antibiotics Among Medical Students in Sudanese Universities: a Cross-sectional Study
Introduction: The benefits of antibiotics are under threat by self-medication, which culminated in economic burdening of developing countries, treatment failures, the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria and an increased probability of exposure and infection of the general population by antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains.Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of medical students in Sudan towards the use of antibiotics, the prevalence of
... valence of self-medication with antibiotics among medical students in Sudan and to identify risk factors which promote self-medication with antibiotics.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive and institution-based study, between November 2020 and January 2021. 1,110 medical students were selected by multistage cluster sampling. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors of self-medication with antibiotics among the study participants.Results: The median knowledge score was 7 out of a maximum of 10 (IQR: 5-8). A moderately positive attitude was observed among the participants (Median: 7/10; IQR: 6-8). 675 (60.8%) self-medicated with antibiotics within the previous 12 months, mostly from community pharmacies (321/675; 47.5%). Antibiotics were most commonly used to treat respiratory tract infections (38.1%) and cough (30.4%). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that self-medication with antibiotics was significantly associated with gender, year of study and monthly income.Conclusions: Undergraduate medical students had moderate knowledge and attitude towards antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance, and an alarmingly high prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics. This highlights the urgent need for tighter legislation regarding the sales of antibiotics in community pharmacies by the state and federal health ministries.