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This paper explores two approaches to multimedia indexing that might contribute to the advancement of text-based conceptual search for pictorial information. Insights from relatively mature retrieval areas (spoken document retrieval and cross-language retrieval) are taken as a starting point for an investigation of the usefulness of the concept of bimodal dictionaries and of clustering features from multi-modal documents into one semantic space. One of the advantages of the presented techniques is that they are domain independent.doi:10.1007/978-3-7091-6771-7_5 fatcat:pvwwzdxsqjfole6nxglmuo6jru