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This article surveys deformable models, a promising and vigorously researched computer-assisted medical image analysis technique. Among model-based techniques, deformable models offer a unique and powerful approach to image analysis that combines geometry, physics, and approximation theory. They have proven to be effective in segmenting, matching, and tracking anatomic structures by exploiting (bottom-up) constraints derived from the image data together with (top-down) a priori knowledge aboutdoi:10.1016/s1361-8415(96)80007-7 pmid:9873923 fatcat:pb3ros6vcbdhte4ifj7xnbqnfe