Oncological and functional outcomes after testis-sparing surgery in patients with germ cell tumors: a systematic review of 285 cases

Josias Bastian Grogg, Zeynep Hafza Dursun, Joerg Beyer, Daniel Eberli, Cedric Poyet, Thomas Hermanns, Christian Daniel Fankhauser
Introduction and objectives: In several urogenital cancers, organ-preserving surgery represents the preferred treatment approach, but in patients with testicular germ cell tumors (tGCTs), radical orchiectomy represents the standard of care. This study aimed to summarize published case series assessing oncological and functional outcomes after testis-sparing surgery (TSS) in patients with tGCTs. Materials and methods: A systematic literature review and individual patient data meta-analysis were
more » ... onducted of published cases with tGCT treated with TSS. Results: Of 2,333 reports, we included 32 reports providing data on 285 patients, including 306 testicles treated with TSS. Adjacent germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) was described in 43%. Hypogonadism and infertility after TSS were diagnosed in 27% and 18%. In patients undergoing adjuvant testicular radiotherapy, hypogonadism was diagnosed in 40%. Patients treated with adjuvant testicular radiotherapy after TSS exhibited a significantly lower incidence of local recurrence (2% vs. 50%, p < 0.001). Distant metastases after TSS were observed in 2%. Conclusion: The current data questions the benefits of TSS in tGCT patients. If at all, TSS should only be offered to well-informed patients with a singular testicle, excellent compliance, a singular tumor less than 2 cm located at the lower pole of the testicle, and normal preoperative endocrine function. Unless patients plan to father a child within a short time frame, adjuvant testicular radiotherapy should be recommended after TSS. Radical orchiectomy remains the standard of care, but future studies may support the use of TSS in selected men.
doi:10.5167/uzh-220726 fatcat:y3lnyzowpff6xdqb5outhzy2zu