Autocrine loops with positive feedback enable context-dependent cell signaling
American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology
We describe a mechanism for context-dependent cell signaling mediated by autocrine loops with positive feedback. We demonstrate that the composition of the extracellular medium can critically influence the intracellular signaling dynamics induced by extracellular stimuli. Specifically, in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system, amplitude and duration of mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK) activation are modulated by the positive-feedback loop formed by the EGFR, the Ras-MAPK
... ling pathway, and a ligand-releasing protease. The signaling response to a transient input is short-lived when most of the released ligand is lost to the cellular microenvironment by diffusion and/or interaction with an extracellular ligand-binding component. In contrast, the response is prolonged or persistent in a cell that is efficient in recapturing the endogenous ligand. To study functional capabilities of autocrine loops, we have developed a mathematical model that accounts for ligand release, transport, binding, and intracellular signaling. We find that context-dependent signaling arises as a result of dynamic interaction between the parts of an autocrine loop. Using the model, we can directly interpret experimental observations on context-dependent responses of autocrine cells to ionizing radiation. In human carcinoma cells, MAPK signaling patterns induced by a short pulse of ionizing radiation can be transient or sustained, depending on cell type and composition of the extracellular medium. On the basis of our model, we propose that autocrine loops in this, and potentially other, growth factor and cytokine systems may serve as modules for context-dependent cell signaling.