6G Networks Orientation by Quantum Mechanics
Journal of ICT Standardization
Quantum mechanics is a part of physics that studies the interactions of matter, light, and particles at the atomic and subatomic levels. Since its initial concepts in the early 1900s built upon extensive research of Nobel laureates such as Max Planck, Niels Bohr, Albert Einstein, and Richard Feynman, amongst others to the first proposed quantum computers by Paul Benioff in 1980, the concept of quantum technologies has evolved. Two central studies derived from quantum mechanics that can support
... nd revolutionize future wireless technologies are quantum computers and quantum communications. The investigation for building the next generation of wireless networks has begun. Therefore, many technological opportunities for applying innovative solutions and advanced concepts are on the table as an option to unlock the full potential of 6G for providing an intelligent, superfast, and secure network. Having said that, quantum mechanics come into play to offer a breakthrough opportunity that will change the world since the popularization of the Internet, and it will propel 6G use cases to be remarkably successful, but only if quantum physics can be engineered and converged into the forementioned quantum technologies to support the achievement of Society 5.0. Therefore, overcoming the quantum challenges, 6G can benefit in many ways. One of them is Quantum computing (QC) that will surpass the computational capabilities of classic computers limited by binary transactions known as bits to resolve future challenges using quantum states to process information in quantum bits (Qubits). Correspondingly, quantum computing will merge with Artificial Intelligence (AI) to create a new model known as Quantum Machine Learning (QML) to deal with the exponential growth of Big Data faster than any existing computational model. In Addition, quantum communications will deliver a safer network, utilizing Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) and inaugurate the next generation of the Internet, much safer for all. Thus, this paper presents a holistic overview of Quantum as a service (QaaS) as a future deployment in the 6G architecture, but only if quantum technologies can be mastered in the next upcoming years. Most likely that QaaS will become available for commercial purposes by the hyperscalers, the ones able to cope with the total cost of ownership (TCO) of these state of art technologies. This paper is divided by an introduction that summarizes the foundation of quantum mechanics, its laws, and the researchers' pioneers responsible for setting the principles used to create the next generation of quantum technologies. In Section 2, there is a presentation of the core parts of quantum physics used to create quantum computers and quantum communications services, which includes the technological challenges to mature these technologies. Finally, in Section 3, the conclusions are presented.