Individual Variations in Arithmetic

James H. Smith
1916 The Elementary school journal  
One of the most significant features of the various studies that have been made in arithmetic is the wide variation in the achievements of the pupils of any grade. The purpose of this study is to determine some of the causes of individual variations in arithmetic and to note the effects of certain corrective exercises With this end in view, the arithmetic tests used in the Cleveland Survey' were given to Grades IIIB-VIIB of the Elementary School of the University of Chicago and the results were
more » ... nd the results were used to diagnose the points of individual weaknesses. The complete set of results of these tests cannot be included in this article. These results showed a large amount of variation in both individuals and classes. There were pupils in the fourth grade who accomplished more in the same time than some pupils in the seventh grade. Furthermore, the best pupil in each grade was approximately three times as rapid as the poorest. Some of the pupils were very good in part of the fifteen sets of the test and extremely poor in other sets. This wide variability suggested the necessity of a more detailed study of certain individuals with particular emphasis on their points of weakness as shown by the results of the test. Individual tests were then prepared and given to 88 pupils in Grades VA-VIIB. These tests were composed of examples from the regular test, but they were adapted to each individual in order to determine the nature of his difficulties in the sets in which he made low scores. Each pupil was asked to work the examples orally so that any mistakes could be definitely located. Notes
doi:10.1086/454538 fatcat:uscciwyq7jcuvlwe7civ2wow7q