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Small and pervasive devices have been increasingly used to identify and track objects automatically. Consequently, several low-cost localization schemes have been proposed in the literature based on angle of arrival (AoA), time difference of arrival (TDoA), received signal strength indicator (RSSI) or their combinations. In this paper, we propose a three-dimensional empirical AoA localization (TDEAL) technique for battery-powered devices. The proposed technique processes the AoA measurements atdoi:10.3390/s19245544 pmid:31847482 pmcid:PMC6960967 fatcat:bonpdehx6ngbdf25hzahubgwk4