PREVENCIÓN DE LA OBESIDAD EN ESCUELAS BÁSICAS DE PEÑALOLÉN: COMPONENTE ALIMENTACIÓN Y NUTRICIÓN
Revista Chilena de Nutricíon
INTRODUCCIÓN El incremento de la obesidad infantil en Chile ha llegado a ser un importante problema de salud pública y nutrición (1), el cual en vez de disminuir, aumenta año tras año, de acuerdo a la información de JUNAEB de la obesidad de los niños de primer año básico en escuelas municipales y particulares subvencionadas del país, hasta llegar a un 21 % el año 2009 (2). Ante esta situación, se han desarrollado diversas estrategias se han desarrollado, en especial intervenciones de
... iones de alimentación y nutrición y actividad física derivadas del exitoso proyecto realizado en Casablanca entre los años 2002 y 2004, el cual demostró que al término del Rev ABSTRACT A food and nutrition education intervention was implemented in nine public schools in Peñalolen, Chile, with one control school. The objective was to determine the trend in obesity prevalence and in food knowledge and food consumption in preschool and school-age children followed longitudinally in the first year of intervention, compared with the control school. The sample included 1556 pre-school, first and second grade (1225 children in experimental schools and 331 in the control school) followed during one school year. Nutrition education activities were performed with teachers and students, and the evaluation of nutritional status was carried out in two points, March-April and October-November 2010. There was also one measurement of snack consumption in pre-school children and a food and nutrition survey in school age children at the beginning and at the end of the year. Results showed that there was no change in overweight and obesity in the intervened school-age children, and a small increase in the control school. However, analyzing nutritional status by school, in seven of the nine experimental schools there was a decrease in obesity. A high percentage of preschool children carried soft drinks and juices to school. In school age children there was a significant increase in fruit and dairy consumption during the year. School age children had a good knowledge of fruits and dairy food, but not of fish and legumes. Despite the short period of food and nutrition intervention, this study shows that interventions implemented in a structured way with an evaluation can have a positive impact on changing eating habits and improving the nutritional status of municipal preschool and school children.