Psychological and pharmacological influences in cigarette smoking withdrawal: Effects of nicotine gum and expectancy on smoking withdrawal symptoms and relapse

Andrew M. Gottlieb, Joel D. Killen, G. Alan Marlatt, C. Barr Taylor
1987 Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology  
To determine the relative effects of expectancy and nicotine depletion on aversive withdrawal symptoms, we gave 109 smokers attempting to quit either nicotine gum or placebo within a balanced placebo design and monitored their withdrawal symptoms and smoking for 2 weeks. Subjects who
doi:10.1037/0022-006x.55.4.606 pmid:3624620 fatcat:xr5zg2xkdfagzbpstvu2zysrfe