Savić, Stojilković, Rankov, Vračarić, Jocić, Damjanov
Abnormal liver function tests occur in 3-5% of pregnancies, with many potential causes, including coincidental liver disease (most commonly viral hepatitis or gallstones) and underlying chronic liver disease. Pruritus in pregnancy is common, affecting 23% of pregnancies, of which a small proportion will have obstetric cholestasis. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a cholestatic disorder characterized by pruritus with onset in the second or third trimester of pregnancy, elevated
more » ... nancy, elevated serum aminotransferases and bile acid levels, and spontaneous relief of signs and symptoms within two to three weeks after delivery. ICP is observed in 0.4-1% of pregnancies in most areas of Central and Western Europe and North America. Genetic and hormonal factors, but also environmental factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of ICP. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy increases the risk of preterm delivery (19-60%), meconium staining of amniotic fluid (27%), fetal bradycardia (14%), fetal distress (22-41%), and fetal loss (0.4-4.1%), particularly when associated with fasting serum bile acid levels >40 μmol/L. Important ICP-induced changes in serum profiles of amidated bile acids were observed, involving both a marked increase in cholic acid concentration and a shift towards a higher proportion of taurine-conjugated species. Ursodeoxycholic acid (10-20 mg/kg/d) is today regarded as the first line treatment for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Delivery has been recommended in the 37-38th week when lung maturity has been established.