Organization and molecular mechanism of insect circadian clocks

S. Gogate, S. Rahman
2019 International Journal of Current Research in Biosciences and Plant Biology  
Life could not exist without organisms' engineered ability to keep track of time on a 24-hour day-night cycle called a circadian rhythm. Insects display an impressive variety of daily rhythms, which are most evident in their behaviour. Circadian timekeeping systems that generate these daily rhythms of physiology and behaviour all involve three interacting elements: the timekeeper itself (i.e. the clock), inputs to the clock through which it entrains and otherwise responds to environmental cues
more » ... environmental cues such as light and temperature, and outputs from the clock through which it imposes daily rhythms on various physiological and behavioural parameters. The clocks control various behaviours, physiological functions, and developmental events, enabling adaptation to periodic environmental changes. Circadian clocks also function in time-compensation for celestial navigation and in the measurement of day or night length for photoperiodism. Molecular and physiological mechanisms are best understood for the optic-lobe and midbrain circadian clocks, although there is no direct evidence that these clocks are involved in rhythmic phenomena other than circadian rhythms in daily events. Circadian clocks have also been localized in peripheral tissues. Circadian clocks are most well studied in Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila flies spend their entire lives in small areas near the ground, and use their circadian brain clock to regulate daily rhythms of rest and activity, so as to organize their behaviour appropriately to the daily rhythms of their local environment. Migratory locusts and butterflies, on the other hand, spend substantial portions of their lives high up in the air migrating long distances and use their circadian brain clocks to provide time-compensation to their sun-compass navigational systems. Ke ywo rds Circadian clocks Clock genes Transcriptional/Translational feedback loops Zeitgeber
doi:10.20546/ijcrbp.2019.608.004 fatcat:5ksapzcuonehzb2un3qj3inhfm