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Extreme scattering events (ESEs) in the interstellar medium (ISM) were first observed in regular flux measurements of compact extragalactic sources. They are characterized by a flux variation over a period of weeks, suggesting the passage of a "diverging plasma lens" across the line of sight. Modeling the refraction of such a lens indicates that the structure size must be of order AU and the electron density of order 10s of cm^-3. Similar structures have been observed in measurements of pulsardoi:10.1088/0004-637x/808/2/113 fatcat:kbvrsgqdxzblnewwwuz3ujj4oq