Association of red meat consumption with the incidence of cardiovascular disease [post]

Steven Chrysant, George S Chrysant
2020 unpublished
Red meat, processed and unprocessed, has been associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, heart failure (HF), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite these adverse effects, it is still, highly consumed by the people of developed counties and increasingly consumed by the people of developing countries. Aims: The aim of the paper was to review the current evidence on the effects of processed and unprocessed red meat consumption on the incidence of CVD,
more » ... ence of CVD, stroke, HF, and T2DM. Materials and Methods: A Medline search of the English language literature was conducted between 2010 and April 2020 using the terms, red meat, white meat, processed meat, unprocessed meat, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, diabetes mellitus and 22 pertinent papers were retrieved. Results: The analysis of results from these papers reveled that high red meat, especially processed meat consumption, is significantly associated with an increased risk of CVD, stroke, HF, and T2DM regardless of age, sex, or ethnicity. Discussion: The results of the studies retrieved, revealed that there is a controversy regarding the association of red meat consumption with an increased incidence of CVD. This controversy is due to the conflicting findings of the studies reviewed, with several studies showing no association, whereas others sowing an association, especially in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. Conclusion: There is regarding the association of red meat consumption with the incidence of CVD due to conflicting results of the various studies. Moderate red meat consumption showed no association with CVD in healthy subjects, but an association in high CVD risk subjects. Therefore, subjects at high cardiovascular risk should refrain from high red meat consumption and increase the intake healthier foods high in fiber content. Posted on Authorea 11 Jun 2020 -The copyright holder is the author/funder. All rights reserved. No reuse without permission. -https://doi.org/10.22541/au.159188513.38865745 -This a preprint and has not been peer reviewed. Data may be preliminary. meat and for vegetarian and vegan diets, even among athletes [19, 20] . In order to get a better perspective on the current consumption of unprocessed and processed red meat and its association with CVD, CHD, stroke, HF, and all-cause mortality, a focused Medline search of the English language literature was conducted between 2010 and April 2020, using the terms, processed, red meat, unprocessed meat, cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, all-cause mortality and 22 pertinent papers were retrieved. These papers together with collateral literature will be discussed in this review. Studies showing a positive association of high consumption of processed and unprocessed red meat with the incidence of cardiovascular disease Several studies have demonstrated a positive association with high consumption of unprocessed and processed red meat and the incidence of CVD and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. These studies are listed in table 1 and they will be, briefly, discussed here. The study by Zheng et al [6] , is a prospective cohort study of 81,469 US men and women ages 59-61 years on the effects of high consumption of unprocessed and processed red meat and incidence of CV mortality. After a mean follow-up of 14.7 years, the highest consumption (> 05 servings/day) of unprocessed red meat was associated with a 10% higher incidence of CV mortality, HR 1.10 (95% CI 1.04-1.17, p < 0.001)), whereas the highest consumption of processed meat was associated with a 13% higher incidence of CV mortality, HR 1.13 (95% CI 1.04-1.23, p < 0.001) compared to those with the lowest meat consumption. In another prospective cohort study, Pan et al [21] , analyzed the effects of red meat consumption on all-cause mortality in 121,342 men and women ages 52-54 free of CVD at baseline. After 22 years of follow-up and multivariate adjustments, one serving of unprocessed or processed red meat was associated with 13% and 20% increase in all-cause mortality, HR 1.13 (95% CI 1.07-1.20), and 1.20 (95% CI 1.15-1.24), respectively. The corresponding percentages for CV mortality were 18% and 21%, HR 1.18 (95% CI 1.13-1.23) and 1.21 (95% CI 1.13-1.31) for unprocessed and processed red meat, respectively. Also, in a case-controlled study, Wang et al [22] , examined the relationship between unprocessed, processed, and total red meat consumption with the incidence of CAD and fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) in 2,131 Costa Rican patients mean age 58.1 years. After 10 years of follow-up, the odds ratio (OR) for the onset of acute MI were higher in the 5 th quintile (11o.8 g/day) than the 1 st quintile, OR 1,29 (95% CI 1.01-1.65) for processed meat and OR 1.31 (95% CI 1.04-1.65) for total red meat consumption, respectively. Regarding the influence of sex on the incidence of MI, women had higher incidence than men, OR 1.47 (95% CI 0.80-2.69). In another prospective cohort study, Key et al [23] , examined the effects of meat on the incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in 409,885 subjects ages 51-61 years, from the Pan-European Epic Cohort study. After 12.6 years of follow-up, the incidence of IHD between the top 5 th and bottom 5 th of unprocessed or processed red meat consumption was increased by 10% and 13 %, HR 1.10 (95% CI 0.99-1.21) and HR 1.13 (95% CI 1.02-1.26) for unprocessed and processed red meat, respectively. In contrast, the consumption of fish, poultry, milk, or eggs were not associated with an increased incidence of IHD. Similarly, a prospective cohort study by Alshahrami et al [24] , examined the effects of unprocessed or processed red meat on the incidence of CV mortality and all-cause mortality in 96,000 subjects from the Seventh -day Adventist faith 53-57 years. After a mean follow-up of 11.8 years, unprocessed red meat was associated with increased incidence of CV mortality and all-cause mortality, HR 1.26 (95% CI 1.05-1.50) and HR 1.18 (95% CI 1.07-1.31), respectively. Processed red meat alone was not associated with an increased incidence of CV mortality, but the combination of unprocessed and processed red meat was, HR 1.23 (95% CI 1.11-1.36). Also, a recent study by Zhong et al [25] , analyzed the of data from 6 US prospective cohort studies of 29,682 subjects mean age 53.7 years, the effects of red meat, poultry, or fish consumption on the incidence of the composite endpoint of (CHD, stroke, HF, CVD, all-cause death). After 19 years of follow-up, there was a positive association of red meat (processed and unprocessed), and poultry, but not fish on the incidence of CVD and all-cause mortality. The adjusted HR (aHR) for CVD was 1.07 (95% CI1.04-1.11) for processed red meat, aHR 1.03 (95% CI 1.01-1.06) for unprocessed red meat, and aHR 1.04 (95% CI 1.01-1.06) for poultry. Also processed and unprocessed red meat had a positive association with all-cause mortality, aHR 1.03 (95% CI 1.02-1.05), aHR 1.03 (95% CI 1.01-1.05), respectively. In contrast, poultry or fish consumption were not associated with an increase in all-cause mortality. Similar effects were demonstrated by several reviews and meta-analyses. The review and meta-analysis by
doi:10.22541/au.159188513.38865745 fatcat:cqgvlimmsbh4zfe4ukbqmqcara