Studies On Stress Concentration Using Experimental And Numerical Methods
2010 Annual Conference & Exposition Proceedings
The experimental and numerical studies were conducted to investigate the stress concentration around a circular cutout in an isotropic material. Test specimens with circular holes were loaded in tension and bending. The tension test specimen was loaded in an Instron test machine. By mounting a set of strain gages orthogonal to the applied loading direction, the students performed the longitudinal strain measurements in the vicinity of the hole. The strains obtained by the series of strain gages
... placed at varying distances from the hole were extrapolated to the edge of the hole to determine the peak stress at the hole. These peak stresses were divided by the corresponding nominal far field stresses to obtain the stress concentration factors for specimen loaded in tension. The bending case was investigated with a cantilever beam with a hole at its mid span. The Flexor setup by Vishay Instruments was used for this purpose. The hole was located in such a way that the nominal stress at the fixed end was the same as the one at the location of the hole. Strain gages were placed at varying distances from the edge of the hole, one being directly adjacent to the edge. Known amounts of load were applied at the free end of the beam. The peak strains at the hole were extrapolated from the strain gage readings similar to what was done for the tension case. The stress concentration factor is the peak strain at the hole divided by the nominal strain at the same location. The experimental results on stress concentrations were compared with finite element solutions performed on the specimen geometries and loadings similar to the ones used in the experiments. A mesh of quadrilateral elements was used to model both the tensile bar and the cantilevered beam specimens with holes. The tensile and the bend specimen geometry and loadings were used to calculate the stress concentration factors. The two dimensional finite element simulations were performed using ANSYS general-purpose computer program. The nodal stresses were used to calculate the stress concentration factors. The stress concentration factors obtained by the experimental and numerical methods were compared with the corresponding closed form solutions.