Development of Biofunctionalized Cellulose Acetate Nanoscaffolds for Heart Valve Tissue Engineering
World Journal of Nano Science and Engineering
Currently-used mechanical and biological heart valve prostheses have a satisfactory short-term performance, but may exhibit several major drawbacks on the long-term. Mechanical prostheses, based on carbon, metallic and polymeric components, require permanent anticoagulation treatment, and their usage often leads to adverse reactions, e.g. thromboembolic complications and endocarditis. In recent years, there is a need for a heart valve prosthesis that can grow, repair and remodel. The concept of
... del. The concept of tissue engineering offers good prospects into the development of such a device. An ideal scaffold should mimic the structural and purposeful profile of materials found in the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture. The goal of this study was to develop cellulose acetate scaffolds (CA) for valve tissue regeneration. After their thorough physicochemical and biological characterization, a biofunctionalization process was made to increase the cell proliferation. Especially, the surface of scaffolds was amplified with functional molecules, such as RGD peptides (Arg-Gly-Asp) and YIGSRG laminins (Tyrosine-Isoleucine-Glycine-Serine-Arginine-Glycine) which immobilized through biotin-streptavidin bond, the strongest non-covalent bond in nature. Last step was to successfully coat an aortic metallic valve with CA biofunctionallized nanoscaffolds and cultivate cells in order to create an anatomical structure comparable to the native valve. Promising results have been obtained with CA-based nanoscaffolds. We found that cells grown successfully on the biofunctionalized valve surface thereby scaffolds that resemble the native tissues, elaborated with bioactive factors such as RGD peptides and laminins not only make the valve's surface biocompatible but also they could promote endothyliazation of cardiac valves causing an anti-coagulant effect.