SnO2 Dense Ceramic Microwave Sintered with Low Resistivity
Materials Sciences and Applications
The Hall-Héroult process is used for alumina reduction by the use of graphite anodes even though it involves a high emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and several other organic compounds. Proposals have been made aiming at substituting graphite for a single-phase SnO 2 -based ceramic with low resistivity and chemical resistance to cryolite, which is characterized as an inconsumable anode, reducing pollutant emissions. To this end, a wide range of studies were carried out on SnO 2 -based
... modified with ZnO as a densification aid doped with the promoters of electrical conductivity such as Nb 2 O 5 , Al 2 O 3 and Sb 2 O 3 through a mixture of oxides and hybrid sintering in a microwave oven. The pressed pellets were sintered in a microwave oven up to 1050˚C under a constant heating rate of 10˚C/min. After sintering, the density was determined by the Archimedes method, the phases were then characterized by X-ray diffraction, the microstructure and chemical composition resulting from the sintered SnO 2 -based ceramics were also investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) coupled with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and the electrical properties were determined by the measurements of the electric field × current density. A single-phase ceramic was obtained with a relative density of above 90% and electrical resistivity of 6.1 Ω·cm at room temperature. The ceramics obtained in this study could be a potential candidate as an inconsumable anode to replace the current fused coke used in the reduction of alumina.