Lipid Species in the GI Tract are Increased by the Commensal Fungus Candida albicans and Decrease the Virulence of Clostridioides difficile

Jesus A. Romo, Laura Markey, Carol A. Kumamoto
2020 Journal of Fungi  
Prior antibiotic treatment is a risk factor for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI); the commensal gut microbiota plays a key role in determining host susceptibility to the disease. Previous studies demonstrate that the pre-colonization of mice with a commensal fungus, Candida albicans, protects against a lethal challenge with C. difficile spores. The results reported here demonstrate that the cecum contents of antibiotic-treated mice with C. albicans colonization contained different
more » ... ned different levels of several lipid species, including non-esterified, unsaturated long-chain fatty acids compared to non-C. albicans-colonized mice. Mice fed olive oil for one week and challenged with C. difficile spores showed enhanced survival compared to PBS-fed mice. The amount of olive oil administered was not sufficient to cause weight gain or to result in significant changes to the bacterial microbiota, in contrast to the effects of a high-fat diet. Furthermore, the direct exposure of C. difficile bacteria in laboratory culture to the unsaturated fatty acid oleic acid, the major fatty acid found in olive oil, reduced the transcription of genes encoding the toxins and reduced the survival of bacteria in the post-exponential phase. Therefore, the effects of C. albicans on the metabolite milieu contributed to the attenuation of C. difficile virulence.
doi:10.3390/jof6030100 pmid:32635220 fatcat:mgbzsingafbglkxpj46bqu3p3q