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Effective and Sustainable Hydraulic Fracturing
The last decade has seen a significantly increased interest in microseismic monitoring by the hydrocarbon industry due to the recent surge in unconventional resources such as shale-gas and heavy-oil plays. Both hydraulic fracturing and steam injection create changes in local pore pressures and in situ stresses and thereby brittle failure in intact rock plus additional slip/shearing in naturally fractured rock. Local rock failure or slip yields an acoustic emission, which is also known as adoi:10.5772/56444 fatcat:tzc4jj25pjbsnhsbdewzuwuxki