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This paper reconsiders the threat posed by Shacham's "return-oriented programming" -a technique by which W⊕X-style hardware protections are evaded via carefully crafted stack frames that divert control flow into the middle of existing variable-length x86 instructions -creating short new instructions streams that then return. We believe this attack is both more general and a greater threat than the author appreciated. In fact, the vulnerability is not limited to the x86 architecture or anydoi:10.1145/1455770.1455776 dblp:conf/ccs/BuchananRSS08 fatcat:l4lwa63lcrcrzpfjiq44imxvry