A Firefly Algorithm Optimization-Based Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy for Fuel Cell Hybrid Light Rail Vehicle
To coordinate multiple power sources properly, this paper presents an optimal control strategy for a fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor light rail vehicle. The proposed strategy, which uses the firefly algorithm to optimize the equivalent consumption minimization strategy, improves the drawback that the conventional equivalent consumption minimization strategy takes insufficient account of the global performance for the vehicle. Moreover, the strategy considers the difference between the two sets
... etween the two sets of optimized variables. The optimization objective is to minimize the daily operating cost of the vehicle, which includes the total fuel consumption, initial investment, and cycling costs of power sources. The selected case study is a 100% low-floor light rail vehicle. The advantages of the proposed strategy are investigated by comparison with the operating mode control, firefly algorithm-based operating mode control, and equivalent consumption minimization strategy. In contrast to other methods, the proposed strategy shows cost reductions of up to 39.62% (from operating mode control), 18.28% (from firefly algorithm-based operating mode control), and 13.81% (from equivalent consumption minimization strategy). In addition, the proposed strategy can reduce fuel consumption and increase the efficiency of the fuel cell system.