Evaluation of the coexistence of cognitive disorders, leukoaraiosis and other risk factors in patients with stroke
Background. Stroke is a common cause of mortality and disability. There are many risk factors for stroke among which leukoaraiosis (LA) is mentioned. Historically, LA was a radiological term, however, today it is classified as Cerebral Small Vessel Disease (CSVD) which clinical presentation depends on the affected brain area. Higher prevalence of LA is found not only in stroke patients, but also in patients with hypertension and other cerebrovascular risk factors. Therefore, the aim of the
... the aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the present LA, selected laboratory tests, the carotid ultrasound markers and cognitive tests results in patients with stroke. Material and methods. The study included 102 patients (W: 56, M: 46) at the age of 70.9 ± 11.5 hospitalized due to stroke in the Stroke Unit of the Department of Neurology. The clinical assessment included NIHSS score, MMSE testing, laboratory blood tests, carotid duplex USG and CT scan of the brain. Patients were dichotomized based on the presence of LA in the CT scan. Results. LA was present in 25 (24.5%) patients. It was more frequently found in older patients (>72 years old; p < 0.001). In the LA group, higher levels of LDL cholesterol (p = 0.002), lower hemoglobin concentration (p = 0.03) and higher platelets count (p = 0.04) were observed. The carotid ultrasound showed higher intimamedia complexes in the LA group (p = 0.02). The functional test showed lower scores on the clock test in patients with LA (p = 0.04). The presence of LA was three times less likely to be present in patients administered with beta1-adrenolytics (p = 0.03). Conclusions. The occurrence of leukoaraiosis in patients with acute stroke is associated with clustering of other vascular risk factors cognitive impairment, and may be related to ongoing cardiovascular therapy.