On the Freeze Quantifier in Constraint LTL: Decidability and Complexity

S. Demri, R. Lazic, D. Nowak
12th International Symposium on Temporal Representation and Reasoning (TIME'05)  
Constraint LTL, a generalization of LTL over Presburger constraints, is often used as a formal language to specify the behavior of operational models with constraints. The freeze quantifier can be part of the language, as in some real-time logics, but this variable-binding mechanism is quite general and ubiquitous in many logical languages (first-order temporal logics, hybrid logics, logics for sequence diagrams, navigation logics, etc.). We show that Constraint LTL over the simple domain N, =
more » ... ugmented with the freeze operator is undecidable which is a surprising result regarding the poor language for constraints (only equality tests). Many versions of freeze-free Constraint LTL are decidable over domains with qualitative predicates and our undecidability result actually establishes Σ 1 1 -completeness. On the positive side, we provide complexity results when the domain is finite (EXPSPACE-completeness) or when the formulae are flat in a sense introduced in the paper. Our undecidability results are quite sharp (i.e. with restrictions on the number of variables) and all our complexity characterizations insure completeness with respect to some complexity class (mainly PSPACE and EXPSPACE).
doi:10.1109/time.2005.28 dblp:conf/time/DemriLN05 fatcat:adfqeayydnf3rbny5a6fqysboa