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Forecasting extreme stratospheric polar vortex events
Extreme polar vortex events known as sudden stratospheric warmings can influence surface winter weather conditions, but their timing is difficult to predict. Here, we examine factors that influence their occurrence, with a focus on their timing and vertical extent. We consider the roles of the troposphere and equatorial stratosphere separately, using a split vortex event in January 2009 as the primary case study. This event cannot be reproduced by constraining wind and temperatures in thedoi:10.1038/s41467-020-18299-7 pmid:32934223 fatcat:r7dkvbzqzngzzhhtkj2f5gihgy