Analysis on Impact Factors of Water Utilization Structure in Tianjin, China
Water is an essential foundation for socio-economic development and environmental protection. As such, it is very critical for a city's sustainable development. This study analyzed the changes in water utilization structure and its impact factors using water consumption data for agricultural, industrial, domestic and ecological areas in the city of Tianjin, China from 2004 to 2013. On this base, the evolution law and impact factors of water utilization structure were depicted by information
... by information entropy and grey correlation respectively. These analyses lead to three main results. First, the total amount of water consumption in Tianjin increased slightly from 2004 to 2013. Second, the information entropy and equilibrium degree peaked in 2010. From 2004 to 2010, the water utilization structure tended to be more disordered and balanced. Third, the economic and social factors seemed to influence the water utilization structure, while the main impact factors were industrial structure, per capita green area, cultivated area, effective irrigation area, rural electricity consumption, animal husbandry output, resident population, per capita domestic water etc. 2 of 11 industrial structure. Hereafter, Liu et al.  used a variable stability test, the co-integration and Granger causality test to study the relationship between water utilization structure and industrial sustainable development. Zhai et al.  not only considered industrial, agricultural and domestic water consumption, but also explored the influence of ecological water consumption on water utilization structure. Indeed, ecological water consumption is very important for sustainable ecological development. Paola et al. [11, 12] presented a multi-objective approach for the automatic partitioning of a water distribution network into District Metering Areas (DMAs). On this base, Paola et al.  presented a model for valve setting in water distribution networks (WDNs), with the aim of reducing the level of leakage. Focusing on an African case, Paola et al.  analyzed the problem of the sustainable design and development of urban storm-water systems in response to the climate change and anthropic modification. Finally, Nunez et al.  presented a system of two-stage processing for the detection of acoustic emissions and the localization of the sources, which is also instructive. Water consumption and its impact factors were discussed in some literatures. In general, water consumption can be divided into four categories: industrial, agricultural, domestic and ecological. Marios  supposed that the impact factors of water consumption included population growth, sustainable economic development, technical progress, land use pattern, urbanization progress etc. Through logarithmic mean Divisia index Method (LMDI), Liu et al.  analyzed the industrial water consumption of Anhui province by considering economic scale, industrial structure and water quota. On this basis, Zhang et al.  added water intensity and industrial water saving effect to those impact factors, and explained the change of industrial water in Anhui Province. Arbues et al.  calculated the weight of domestic water consumption. Cui et al.  proposed that the impact factors of domestic water consumption mainly included resident income and water price. Adding drinking water and family population, Xu  built a regression model to research the impact factors of domestic water consumption in Beijing. Above results were meaningful, but the impact factors of water utilization structure should be further perfected. The impact factors from different literatures were complementary. Based on these impact factors and the data we could get (mainly from Tianjin Statistical Yearbook 2005-2014 ), the impact factors were filtered. Besides, in Tianjin Statistical Yearbook 2005-2014  , some indexes did not appear in above literatures, but they had influence on the water consumption of Tianjin. These kinds of indexes also could be used as impact factors. This study took the water consumption of Tianjin from 2004 to 2013 as sample  . Tianjin is located in the northeast of North China Plain and in the center of Bohai economic circle. As the largest port city of North China, Tianjin is an important communication hub, directly connecting Beijing to Northeast China, East China and the Pacific Ocean. In this study, the change of water utilization structure in Tianjin was analyzed, and its main impact factors were identified afterwards. These impact factors of water utilization structure are essential for us to conduct effective water resources management and sustainable development in Tianjin.