Seasonal pattern in parasite infracommunities of Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus and Hoplias malabaricus (Actinopterygii: Erythrinidae) from the Brazilian Amazon
AbstractThe present study investigated the effects of seasonal variation in parasites infracommunities of Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus and Hoplias malabaricus from a tributary of Amazon River. For H. unitaeniatus and H. malabaricus, 11 parasite species were similar, and greatest parasite richness occurred during the rainy season. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the dominant parasite species for both hosts. In H. unitaeniatus, infection by Whittingtonocotyle caetei, Whittingtonocotyle jeju,
... nocotyle jeju, Urocleidoides sp. and Anacanthorus sp. was higher during rainy season. Contracaecum sp., Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Nomimoscolex matogrossensis and Gorytocephalus spectabilis showed no seasonal pattern. For H. unitaeniatus, P. pillulare, Clinostomum marginatum and Argulus pestifer occurred only during dry season, while Trichodina sp., Dolops geayi, undetermined metacercariae and Posthodiplostomum sp. occurred only during the rainy season. In H. malabaricus, the prevalence of Urocleidoides eremitus was similar during the two seasons, but abundance was higher during the rainy season. Tetrahymena sp., C. marginatum, Dendrorchis neivai, undetermined metacercariae, Posthodiplostomum sp., Genarchella genarchella, Cystidicoloides sp., G. spectabilis, D. geayi, A. pestifer and Glossiphonidae gen. sp. occurred only during the dry season. However, Contracaecum sp. and P. (S.) inopinatus occurred during both seasons, but the prevalence of P. (S.) inopinatus was higher during the rainy season. Seasonal variation in this infection levels was due to the host's feeding behavior and habits and the availability of infectious forms of parasites with heteroxenic life cycles. The non-seasonal fluctuation detected are likely a result of the parasites biology, highly variable nature of this tributary of Amazon River and low abundance of parasites.