Evaluation of Dislocation Densities in Various Microstructures of Additively Manufactured Ti6Al4V (Eli) by the Method of X-ray Diffraction

Amos Muiruri, Maina Maringa, Willie du Preez
2020 Materials  
Dislocations play a central role in determining strength and flow properties of metals and alloys. Diffusionless phase transformation of β→α in Ti6Al4V during the Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) process produces martensitic microstructures with high dislocation densities. However, heat treatment, such as stress relieving and annealing, can be applied to reduce the volume of these dislocations. In the present study, an analysis of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles of the non-heat-treated
more » ... e non-heat-treated and heat-treated microstructures of DMLS Ti6Al4V(ELI) was carried out to determine the level of defects in these microstructures. The modified Williamson–Hall and modified Warren–Averbach methods of analysis were used to evaluate the dislocation densities in these microstructures. The results obtained showed a 73% reduction of dislocation density in DMLS Ti6Al4V(ELI) upon stress relieving heat treatment. The density of dislocations further declined in microstructures that were annealed at elevated temperatures, with the microstructures that were heat-treated just below the β→α recording the lowest dislocation densities.
doi:10.3390/ma13235355 pmid:33255870 fatcat:7quh7tikrfdc5og5apjrlez3ni