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Photo Response Non-Uniformity (PRNU) noise can be considered as a spread-spectrum watermark embedded in every image taken by the source imaging device. It has been effectively used for localizing the forgeries in digital images. The noise residual extracted from the image in question is compared with the reference PRNU in a sliding-window based manner. If their normalized cross correlation, which servers as a decision statistic, is below a pre-determined threshold (e.g., by Neyman-Pearsondoi:10.1109/dmiaf.2016.7574937 dblp:conf/dmiaf/LinL16 fatcat:3qivn3myqfawtmdlynhcvathhq