Comprehensive review of surgical microscopes: technology development and medical applications
Journal of Biomedical Optics
Surgical microscopes provide adjustable magnification, bright illumination, and clear visualization of the surgical field and have been increasingly used in operating rooms. State-of-the-art surgical microscopes are integrated with various imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), fluorescence imaging, and augmented reality (AR) for image-guided surgery. This comprehensive review is based on the literature of over 500 papers that cover the technology development and
... tions of surgical microscopy over the past century. The aim of this review is threefold: (i) providing a comprehensive technical overview of surgical microscopes, (ii) providing critical references for microscope selection and system development, and (iii) providing an overview of various medical applications. More than 500 references were collected and reviewed. A timeline of important milestones during the evolution of surgical microscope is provided in this study. An in-depth technical overview of the optical system, mechanical system, illumination, visualization, and integration with advanced imaging modalities is provided. Various medical applications of surgical microscopes in neurosurgery and spine surgery, ophthalmic surgery, ear-nose-throat (ENT) surgery, endodontics, and plastic and reconstructive surgery are described. Surgical microscopy has been significantly advanced in the technical aspects of high-end optics, bright and shadow-free illumination, stable and flexible mechanical design, and versatile visualization. New imaging modalities, such as hyperspectral imaging, OCT, fluorescence imaging, photoacoustic microscopy, and laser speckle contrast imaging, are being integrated with surgical microscopes. Advanced visualization and AR are being added to surgical microscopes as new features that are changing clinical practices in the operating room. The combination of new imaging technologies and surgical microscopy will enable surgeons to perform challenging procedures and improve surgical outcomes. With advanced visualization and improved ergonomics, the surgical microscope has become a powerful tool in neurosurgery, spinal, ENT, ophthalmic, plastic and reconstructive surgeries.