Brain abnormalities in cognition, anxiety, and depression regulatory regions in adolescents with single ventricle heart disease
Journal of Neuroscience Research
Single ventricle heart disease (SVHD) adolescents show cognitive impairments and anxiety and depressive symptoms, indicating the possibility of brain injury in regions that control these functions. However, brain tissue integrity in cognition, anxiety, and depression regulatory sites in SVHD remains unclear. We examined brain tissue changes in SVHD compared to controls using T2-relaxometry procedures, which measure free water content and show tissue injury. Methods: Proton-density and
... d images, using a 3.0-Tesla MRI, as well as anxiety (Beck anxiety inventory [BAI]), depressive symptoms (patient health questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9]), and cognition (wide range assessment of memory and learning 2 [WRAML2] and Montreal cognitive assessment [MoCA]) data were collected from 20 SVHD (age: 15.8 ± 1.1 years, male/ female: 11/ 9) and 36 controls (age: 16.0 ± 1.1 years, male/female: 19/17). Whole-brain T2relaxation maps were calculated, normalized to a common space, smoothed, and compared between groups and sexes (analysis of covariance; covariates: age, sex; p < 0.001). Results: SVHD subjects showed significantly increased BAI and PHQ-9 and reduced MoCA and WRAML2 scores over controls. Several brain regions in SVHD showed increased T2-relaxation values (chronic injury), including the cingulate, and insula, hippocampus/para-hippocampal gyrus, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, frontal white matter, corpus callosum, brainstem, and cerebellar areas. Decreased T2-relaxation values (acute injury) emerged in a few regions, including the prefrontal and cerebellar cortices in SVHD over controls. In addition, male SVHD showed more brain changes over female SVHD. Conclusions: Adolescents with SVHD showed significant brain injury with variable malefemale differences in areas that control cognition, anxiety, and depression, which may contribute to functional deficits found in the condition. (CHLA) pediatric cardiology clinics, and private practice cardiology groups in Southern California. We included adolescents with SVHD between the ages of 14-18 years who have undergone surgical palliation with Fontan completion. Healthy controls were recruited from local high schools and the surrounding community. All controls were without history of chronic medical or psychiatric conditions or previous head Pike et al.