A Survey of RFID Deployment and Security Issues
Journal of Information Processing Systems
This paper describes different aspects of a typical RFID implementation. Section 1 provides a brief overview of the concept of Automatic Identification and compares the use of different technologies while Section 2 describes the basic components of a typical RFID system. Section 3 and Section 4 deal with the detailed specifications of RFID transponders and RFID interrogators respectively. Section 5 highlights different RFID standards and protocols and Section 6 enumerates the wide variety of
... lications where RFID systems are known to have made a positive improvement. Section 7 deals with privacy issues concerning the use of RFIDs and Section 8 describes common RFID system vulnerabilities. Section 9 covers a variety of RFID security issues, followed by a detailed listing of countermeasures and precautions in Section 10. A Survey of RFID Deployment and Security Issues 562 tact to take place between the reader and the button thus making them suitable for only limited applications; coupled with the fact that these are proprietary systems, has severely restricted their market share  . Smart card (and derivatives such as memory card or microprocessor card), solutions use standard credit-card sized plastic cards with an integral data storage system that is designed to make financial transactions secure as well as faster, but they have to deal with the high cost of maintenance of their readers  . The globalization of businesses, the rise of e-commerce, and the need for more efficient supply chain management propelled the industry to invent a new generation contactless Auto-ID system called Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), which sought to overcome these limitations and to reduce human intervention in inventory-management and other industrial processes by drastically improving both the speed as well as accuracy of data collection and dissemination. RFID systems rely on Radio Frequency to transmit a tag-specific unique serial number to a reader or interrogator. The earliest predecessor of the RFID concept is believed to be a Soviet spy gadget that retransmitted incident radio waves with audio information. One of the earliest applications of RF transponders was the Friend-or-Foe (IFF: Identification, Friend or Foe) aircraft identification system that was used by the Royal Air Force during World War II to distinguish between enemy and Allied aircraft  . In the US, RFIDs have been used since the 1960s to manage nuclear and hazardous material. The modulated backscatter RFID tags, as demonstrated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1973, are widely used today, particularly in the UHF and microwave spectrum. Popular applications of RFID, apart from inventory management throughout the entire supply chain, include patient tracking, toll-gate payment systems, high value asset tracking for defense applications, animal tracking, casino management, automobile security, financial transaction systems, and the tracking of pharmaceuticals etc. Different tag variables, such as the power source, the class, and generation, as well as different system frequencies, standards, and protocols affect various performance parameters such as data transmission range, reading distance, life span, the amount of data, and security issues. These different variables are described in greater detail in the following sections.