A Non-Ergodic Ground-Motion Model of Fourier Amplitude Spectra for France
We used an ergodic ground-motion model (GMM) of California of Bayless and Abrahamson (Bull Seismol Soc Am 109(5):2088–2105, 2019) as a backbone model and incorporated the varying-coefficient model (VCM), with a modification for anisotropic path effects, to develop a new non-ergodic GMM for France based on the French RESIF data set (1996-2016). Most of the earthquakes in this database have small-to-moderate magnitudes (M2.0 – M5.2). We developed the GMM for the smoothed effective amplitude
... um (EAS) rather than for elastic spectral acceleration because it allows the use of small magnitude data to constrain linear effects of the path and site without the complication of the scaling being affected by differences in the response spectral shape. For the VCM, the coefficients of GMM can vary by geographical location and they are estimated using Gaussian-process regression. There is a separate set of coefficients for each source and site coordinate, including both the mean coefficients and the epistemic uncertainty in the coefficients. We further modify the anelastic attenuation term of a GMM by the cell-specific approach of Kuehn et al. (Bull Seismol Soc Am 109 (2): 575–585, 2019) to allow for azimuth-dependent attenuation for each source which reduces the standard deviation of the residuals at long distances. As an example, we compute the 5Hz seismic hazard for two sites using the non-ergodic EAS GMM. At the 1 10-4 annual frequency of exceedance hazard level, there can be a large difference between the ergodic hazard and the non-ergodic hazard if the site is close to the available data. The combination of the non-ergodic median ground motion and the reduced aleatory variability can have large implications for seismic-hazard estimation for long return periods. For some sites, the estimated hazard will increase and for other sites the estimated hazard will decrease compared to the traditional ergodic GMM approach. Due to the skewed distribution of the epistemic uncertainty of the hazard, more of the sites will see a decrease in the mean hazard mean hazard at the 1 10-4 hazard level than will see an increase as a result of using the non-ergodic GMM.