Targeting Methyltransferases in Human Pathogenic Bacteria: Insights into Thymidylate Synthase (TS) and Flavin-Dependent TS (FDTS)

Cecilia Pozzi, Ludovica Lopresti, Giusy Tassone, Stefano Mangani
2019 Molecules  
In cells, thymidylate synthases provide the only de novo source of 2′-deoxythymidine-5′-monophosphate (dTMP), required for DNA synthesis. The activity of these enzymes is pivotal for cell survival and proliferation. Two main families of thymidylate synthases have been identified in bacteria, folate-dependent thymidylate synthase (TS) and flavin-dependent TS (FDTS). TS and FDTS are highly divergent enzymes, characterized by exclusive catalytic mechanisms, involving different sets of cofactors.
more » ... ets of cofactors. TS and FDTS mechanisms of action have been recently revised, providing new perspectives for the development of antibacterial drugs targeting these enzymes. Nonetheless, some catalytic details still remain elusive. For bacterial TSs, half-site reactivity is still an open debate and the recent evidences are somehow controversial. Furthermore, different behaviors have been identified among bacterial TSs, compromising the definition of common mechanisms. Moreover, the redox reaction responsible for the regeneration of reduced flavin in FDTSs is not completely clarified. This review describes the recent advances in the structural and functional characterization of bacterial TSs and FDTSs and the current understanding of their mechanisms of action. Furthermore, the recent progresses in the development of inhibitors targeting TS and FDTS in human pathogenic bacteria are summarized.
doi:10.3390/molecules24081638 fatcat:pbhx2l4mlzbyfhmdciddfgnjh4