Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Beers: Consumption and Public Health Concerns
Chemical Science International Journal
Aim: The aim is to investigate some physicochemical properties of beers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminants in beer brewed with isomerized hop extract and in comparison with beers brewed with extracts from four Nigerian potential hop substitutes. Study Design: Beers were brewed using isomerized hop extract and extracts from four Nigerian bitter vegetables. Analyses of physicochemical properties of the beers and for the presence of 16 specific target PAHs were carried out using
... rried out using their respective standard methods. Place and Duration of Study: Analysis of physicochemical properties of the beers was done at Nigerian Breweries PLC, Enugu while analysis for PAHs was conducted at Central Laboratory, Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research, Lagos between July, 2018 and November, 2019. Methodology: Physicochemical properties of the beers (alcohol content, bitterness level, pH, specific gravity, colour) were determined using their respective standard methods. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used in analyzing for PAHs [naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene]. Four isotopically labelled PAHs (acenaphthene-d10, phenanthrene-d10, chrysene-d12 and perylene-d12) were used as internal standards. Results: Alcohol content (%v//v) in the beer samples is A(5.20); B(4.28); C(4.40); D(4.43) and E(4.54), bitterness level in International Bitterness Units (IBU) is A(0.54); B(0.80); C(1.46); D(1.46) and E(0.08), pH is A(4.36); B(3.08); C(3.88); D(3.90) and E(3.87), specific gravity is A(10.06); B(10.00); C(10.00); D(10.06) and E(10.06), and beer colour is A(5.80); B(7.70); C(6.60); D(8.00) and E(7.40). All 16 EPA PAHs were not found in all the beer samples except pyrene which was detected in sample B at a concentration of 0.00402 mg/kg. Conclusion: It is concluded that extracts from the four Nigerian bitter vegetables could be used as substitutes for isomerized hop extract and that consumption of beer produced using extract from G. kola poses great public health concerns.