Removal of Cadmium Ions from Synthetic Wastewater by using Pennisetum purpureum (Elephant Grass) as Low Cost Biodegradable Adsorbent (Biosorbent)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu Journal of Undergraduate Research
At present, heavy metal pollution is a major environmental concern and the adsorption technique is a potent method for removal of these heavy metals from wastewater. Activated carbon is one of the best adsorbents for metal ions removal but it is sometimes restricted due to high cost and problems with regeneration hamper large scale application. Low cost adsorbent is alternatively being introduced to replace activated carbon since it is available in large quantity, renewable and inexpensive.
... e, Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass) was investigated for its potential in cadmium ions removal. The adsorbent was characterized by Fourier Transforms Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and Barrett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) analyses. The effects of pH (1 to 5), initial metal ion concentration (5 to 25 mg/L), contact time (10 to 60 minutes) and adsorbent dosage (0.2 to 1.0 g) on cadmium ions removal were conducted by batch adsorption experiments. In this study, the FT-IR results demonstrated that the functional groups for untreated and nitric acid-treated P. purpureum mainly consisted of carbonyl, carboxyl, hydroxyl and amine groups which are able to bind with positively charged cadmium ions. SEM micrographs have proven that nitric acid modification would remove the surface impurities of P. purpureum, which increased the surface roughness, produced deep, open pores and better pore size distribution. From the BET and BJH analyses, the treated P. purpureum was mesoporous, had larger surface area and pore volume compared to untreated P. purpureum. The best pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time were pH 4, 0.6 g and 30 minutes, respectively. The highest removal percentage of cadmium ions for both untreated and treated P. purpureum were 92% and 98% correspondingly. The results shown strengthened the fact that both biosorbents have great potential in cadmium ions removal.