Selective Modification of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Isoform Expression in Rat Pancreatic Islets Elicited by Starvation and Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor- : Implications for Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion

M. C. Sugden, K. Bulmer, D. Augustine, M. J. Holness
2001 Diabetes  
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) has a pivotal role in islet metabolism. The pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK1-4) regulate glucose oxidation through inhibitory phosphorylation of PDC. Starvation increases islet PDK activity (Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 270:E988 -E994, 1996). In this study, using antibodies against PDK1, PDK2, and PDK4 (no sufficiently specific antibodies are as yet available for PDK3), we identified the PDK isoform profile of the pancreatic islet and delineated the
more » ... effects of starvation (48 h) on protein expression of individual PDK isoforms. Rat islets were demonstrated to contain all three PDK isoforms, PDK1, PDK2, and PDK4. Using immunoblot analysis with antibodies raised against the individual recombinant PDK isoforms, we demonstrated increased islet protein expression of PDK4 in response to starvation (2.3-fold; P < 0.01). Protein expression of PDK1 and PDK2 was suppressed in response to starvation (by 27% [P < 0.01] and 10% [NS], respectively). We demonstrated that activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-␣ (PPAR-␣) by the selective agonist WY14,643 for 24 h in vivo leads to specific upregulation of islet PDK4 protein expression by 1.8-fold (P < 0.01), in the absence of change in islet PDK1 and PDK2 protein expression but in conjunction with a 2.2-fold increase (P < 0. 01) in islet PPAR-␣ protein expression. Thus, although no changes in islet PPAR-␣ expression were observed after the starvation protocol, activation of PPAR-␣ in vivo may be a potential mechanism underlying upregulation of islet PDK4 protein expression in starvation. We evaluated the effects of antecedent changes in PDK profile and/or PPAR-␣ activation induced by starvation or PPAR-␣ activation in vivo on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in isolated islets. GSIS at 20 mmol/l glucose was modestly impaired on incubation with exogenous triglyceride (1 mmol/l triolein) (ϳ20% inhibition; P < 0.05) in islets from fed rats. Starvation (48 h) impaired GSIS in the absence of triolein (by 57%; P < 0.001), but GSIS after the further addition of triolein did not differ significantly between islets from fed or starved rats. GSIS by islets prepared from WY14,643-treated fed rats did not differ significantly from that seen with islets from control fed rats, and the response to triolein addition resembled that of islets prepared from fed rather than starved rats. PPAR-␣ activation in vivo led to increased insulin secretion at low glucose concentrations. Our results are discussed in relation to the potential impact of changes in islet PDK profile on the insulin secretory response to lipid and of PPAR-␣ activation in the cause of fasting hyperinsulinemia. Diabetes 50:
doi:10.2337/diabetes.50.12.2729 pmid:11723055 fatcat:h4wtwt7sxzan3awicol7uarmmi